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Monday, October 29, 2012

Unit 4: Gender


1)   Nouns and pronouns can be classified according to masculine, feminine and common gender.
2)   The masculine gender refers to a male.
Examples:

king
boy
man
he


3)   The feminine gender refers to a female.
Examples:

queen
girl
woman
she


More examples :
People
Masculine
Feminine
Masculine
Feminine
brother
sister
wizard
witch
Bachelor
spinster
Shepherd
Shepherdess
Hero
Heroine
Waiter
Waitress
Husband
Wife
Giant
Giantess
Man
Woman
Father
Mother
Prince
Princess
Conductor
Conductress
King
Queen
Bridegroom
Bride
Monk
Nun
Son
Daughter
Nephew
Niece
Gentleman
Lady
Widower
Widow
Ogre
Ogress
uncle
aunt
master
mistress


Animals
Masculine
Feminine
Masculine
Feminine
Male
Female
Gander
Goose
Lion
Lioness
Bullock
Heifer
Tiger
Tigress
Cob(swan)
Pen
Boar
Sow
Buck(deer)
Doe
Cockerel
Hen
Hawk
Bowess
Bull
Cow
Leopard
Leopardess
Ram
Ewe
Lion
Lioness
Drake
Duck
Ram(sheep)
Ewe
Stallion(horse)
Mare
Wolf
She-wolf
He-goat
She-goat
Tom cat
Tabby cat
Buck(deer)
Doe
Drone(bee)
Queen
Dog(fox)
Vixen
Buck(kangaroo)
Roo
leopard
leopardess
Jack(wallaby)
jill

4)    A common gender can be used to refer to either a male or a female. There is no change in its form.
Examples:

Animal
Friend
Passenger
Baby
Guest
Pupil
Bird
Infant
Singer
Cat
Orphan
Teacher
child
owner
traveller


Friday, October 26, 2012

Unit 3: Countable and Uncountable Nouns


(A) Countable Nouns
1.    Countable nouns are things that can be counted.
Examples :
Marble           boy                  man                cup                 table

2.    Countable nouns are used with articles or quantifiers such as ‘a’, ‘an’, ‘few’, ‘a few’, ‘many’ and ‘some’. These words (articles or quantifiers) come before the countable nouns.
Examples :
A girl                          few people                a few books
An elephant             some girls                  many trees

(B) Uncountable Nouns
1.    Uncountable nouns are names of things that cannot be counted.
Examples :
Sand              happiness                 air                    noise              salt                  smoke

2.    Uncountable nouns are used with the articles ‘the’ or determiners such as ‘much’, ‘a little’ and ‘some’. Uncountable nouns do not have plurals.

Examples :

Much salt                   a little joy                    some music
Much time                 a little noise               some news

3.    Some nouns can be countable or uncountable depending on how they are used.

Sunday, October 21, 2012

Unit 2: Singular and Plural Nouns


1)    Nouns can be either singular or plural. A singular noun refers to one person or thing. A plural noun refers to more than one person or thing.
2)    A plural form is formed by adding ‘-s’ at the end of the word. Sometimes, a plural noun can be formed by adding ‘-es’ at the end of the word.
Examples :
(a)  Plural nouns formed by adding ‘-s’ at the end of the word.

Singular
Plural
boy
boys
chief
chiefs
door
doors
dwarf
dwarfs
piano
pianos
river
rivers
roof
roofs
ship
ships


(b)  Plural nouns formed by adding ‘-es’ at the end of the word.

Singular
Plural
glass
glasses
watch
watches
box
boxes
echo
echoes


3)    For some nouns that end with ‘-f’ or ‘-fe’, their plurals are formed by changing ‘-f’ into ‘-v’ and then adding ‘-es’ or ‘-s’ (if there is already an ‘-e’ in the main word).



Examples:

Singular
Plural
Singular
Plural
Singular
Plural
leaf
leaves
knife
knives
thief
thieves


4) For some nouns that end with ‘-y’ after a consonant, their plurals are formed by changing ‘-y’ into ‘-i’ and adding ‘-es’. (Plural nouns that end with ‘-y’ after a vowel are formed by adding ‘-s’ at the end of the word.)

Examples:

Singular
Plural
Singular
Plural
Singular
Plural
army
armies
city
cities
tray
trays